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Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Dêr Series [Hearst Egyptian Expedition]
09.03.2021, 22:15

Днешният археологически обект Нага ед Деир (Нага ед Дер) се намира близо до Абидос. Основната му част са множеството гробища, образуващи некропол разположен на 1,5 км по протежение на варовиковите скали (джебел) по поречието на Нил.
Некрополът е бил обвързан с древноегипетския град Чени (Тинис), някога могъщ властови център от Преддинастическата епоха. Градът и некрополът запазват значението си и през Раннодинастичния период и епохата на Старото царство, като последният период на погребална активност е от времето на Първия преходен период. 
Настоящата серия е резултатът от проведените между 1901-1904 разкопки на експедиция от Калифорнийския университет, начело с Джордж Андрю Райснер, като неин спонсор е Фебе Апърсън Хърст. Затова и самата експедиция е наречена на нейно име.

[Naga-ed-Dêr 1] George Andrew Reisner - The early dynastic cemeteries of Naga-ed-Dêr. Part I, Leipzig, J.C. Hinrisch, 1908

[Naga-ed-Dêr 2] Arthur C. Mace - The early dynastic cemeteries of Naga-ed-Dêr. Part II, Leipzig, J.C. Hinrisch, 1909

[Naga-ed-Dêr 3] George Andrew Reisner - A provincial cemetery of the pyramid age: Naga-ed-Dêr, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1932

[Naga-ed-Dêr 4] Albert Morton Lythgoe - The predynastic Cemetery N 7000 (Naga-ed-Dêr), Berkeley - Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1965

- на английски език, от HEIDI- Heidelberg University Digital Library, формат PDF.Сваляне с ляв бутон (downloading by left button) и после през бутона Download.

 

Added by: Admin | | Tags: раннодинастичен период, древноегипетска религия, древноегипетски некрополи, Древен Египет, Първи преходен период, Тинис, Старо царство, древноегипетска археология, Нага ед Дер, Нага ед Деир, Преддинастичен период
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The cemeteries of Naga ed-Deir (Naga-ed-Der; 26°22′ N, 31°54′ E) lie on the east bank of the Nile near Abydos in Upper Egypt. The archaeological remains stretch more than 1.5km along the limestone cliffs (gebel) to the north-west of the modern village and Coptic monastery (Deir) after which the site is named. The cemeteries of Naga ed-Deir cover an almost unbroken sequence from Predynastic times to the present. Inscriptions from Dynastic tombs link the site with the ancient town of Tjeni (Thinis/This).

The Hearst Egyptian Expedition of the University of California worked at Naga ed-Deir between February 1901 and August 1904. Phoebe Apperson Hearst sponsored the Expedition, which was led by George A.Reisner. The Hearst Expedition numbered cemeteries 100 to 3500 around the three wadis at the southern end of the site, and cemeteries 9000-10,000 which were located farther north. 

The cemetery identified as N7000 was the oldest at the site, dating primarily to the earlier part of the Predynastic period (Nagada I and II, circa 3,800-3,300 BC). There is no known late Predynastic (Nagada III) cemetery from the site comparable to N7000. It may be that during late Predynastic times the cemetery of Mesaeed, located near the town of Naga el-Mesaid (circa 4km south of Naga ed-Deir), became the primary burial ground for the region. Since a large Early Dynastic cemetery (N1500) is located just 300m southwest of cemetery N7000 and only a small proportion of the dated graves from Mesaeed belong to the Nagada III phase, it is also possible that there was a Nagada III cemetery at Naga ed-Deir that has been destroyed or remains undiscovered.

The oval and rectangular pit graves from cemetery N7000 held the bodies of one or more individuals in contracted positions, with the head to the south, facing west and wrapped in cloth and reed matting. The graves contained typical Predynastic artifacts, including pottery, cosmetic palettes, stone vessels, and implements and beads of stone, ivory, bone and copper. The rarity of foreign artifacts, such as the cylinder seal from N7304 (possibly of Mesopotamian origin), indicates that any contact between this site and the Mesopotamian region was limited, probably consisting of indirect, long-distance trade. Cemetery N7000 is notable for the extraordinary quality of preservation of perishable materials, such as cloth, wood, baskets, animal skin and human bodies. Grafton Elliot Smith’s analysis of the human remains contradicted earlier theories that the Predynastic Egyptians dismembered their dead.

In the Early Dynastic period (1st-2nd Dynasties) burial activity at Naga ed-Deir shifted to the alluvial bank on the west side of Wadi 3 (Cemetery 1500). The Early Dynastic tombs were apparently the first at this site to be built using mudbrick. In Cemetery 1500 large rectangular superstructures (mastabas) of mudbrick, with solid mudbrick or rubble interiors and plain or niched exteriors, were built over burial pits sometimes reached by a stairway. These mastabas were erected after the interment had taken place. The burial pit might be a plain hole or consist of one, two, three or five mudbrick- or wood-lined chambers. The largest chamber contained the body, laid in a contracted position on the left side with head to the south, facing west and placed in a coffin of wood or pottery. The chambers held ceramic storage jars and bowls and plates of pottery or stone. Some tombs contained over forty finely made vessels of Egyptian alabaster, granite, gneiss, slate, and other stones. The largest collection of provenanced cylinder seals from this period was found here. Their distinctively Egyptian designs include hieroglyphic inscriptions. Grave N1532 contained a necklace with repousse figures of an oryx, a bull and a beetle decorated with the emblem of the Delta goddess Neith, some of the oldest gold jewelry known from Egypt. Other artifacts of note were metal tools, flint blades and knives and decorated cosmetic dishes. Tombs of this period were also found in Cemeteries 500, 3000 and 3500.

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Two types of tombs were built in the Old Kingdom. At the base of the gebel, mastabas of mudbrick or rough stones plastered with mud, a few with exterior offering niches, were constructed over simple pits or shafts leading to one or more rough chambers. Rock-cut tombs first appeared at this site in the later Old Kingdom in cemeteries 100400. In some of these, only the burial chamber was rock-cut, while others also had a rock-cut chapel, rarely decorated, which served as the offering area and one or more sealed shafts or corridors leading to burial chambers. Shallow pit graves held the burials of the poorest members of the community. During the 4th Dynasty the predominant orientation of the body changed from head to the south to head to the north. In the early Old Kingdom the body was still placed in a loosely contracted or semi-extended position on the left side, but by the end of the period the fully extended position became the norm in larger graves. Ceramic coffins became less common and wooden coffins, some inscribed with funerary texts, predominated. Headrests and mirrors were often placed within the coffin.

Preservation of perishable materials was better in the rock-cut tombs than in the pits in the gravel and alluvium. Important finds in these upper tombs included statues of stone (N3604) and wood, whole pleated garments (N94) and papyri. The pottery, which was found in both the burial and offering chambers, was generally plain and included bowls, storage jars, pot stands and cosmetic jars. A few fine bowls of Meydum Ware were found. Stone vessels were popular, especially earlier in the period. Hard stones were used less often than in the preceding period. Cylinder seals became rare and may have been replaced by button seals of bone or ivory. Tombs of Old Kingdom date are found in Cemeteries 100-400, 500-900, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3200, 3500, SF 200, SF 500 and SF 5000.

In the First Intermediate Period, mastabas and rock-cut tombs were both used for burial. The rock-cut chapels of the more important tombs were decorated with painted and carved reliefs which contained typical Old Kingdom themes. Most of these tombs were reused in later periods and artifacts from different periods are often found in one tomb. Poor burials in the gravel and alluvial deposits held reed, basket or stick coffins. Some scholars believe that the cemeteries of Naga ed-Deir are those reported as being damaged in The Instructions for King Merikare (11th Dynasty), although no more specific location than the nome of This/Thinis is mentioned in that text. Tombs of the First Intermediate Period at Naga ed-Deir are found in Cemeteries 100-400, 2000, 2500, 3200, 3500, Sheikh Farag Cemeteries 200, 500 and 5000, and on the west bank of Wadi 3 below the town of Naga ed-Deir.

Painted limestone stelae carved in sunk or raised relief (less common) appeared at the end of the 6th Dynasty and became common in the First Intermediate Period. More than 100 stelae have been attributed to the site. They were placed in the chapels of rock-cut tombs or in small niches in the western face of the mastabas and served as the focus of the offering area.

Burial in a wooden coffin painted with the name and titles of the deceased and a short funerary formula was the norm. The body was laid fully extended on its back with head to the north. Where preservation was good, the bodies were wrapped in linen. There were no recorded examples of evisceration of the body. Lengths of cloth and whole garments were piled over the body and a walking stick, headrest and bronze mirror were often placed in the coffin. Painted funerary masks of cartonnage, made of plaster applied on cloth, appear for the first time at this site (in N3804). A rare ivory statuette (in N3737), wooden models of offering bearers and domestic scenes, and papyri were also found. The unsettled political situation was reflected in the presence of bows and other weapons. The button seals were gradually replaced by seal amulets, the most famous form of which is the scarab. The pottery continues the forms of the Old Kingdom (jars, pot stands, bowls), but the fabric is generally coarser. Stone vessels become very rare.

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