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Helena Pio - Baboons in Ancient Egyptian art
13.12.2019, 09:16

Твърде любопитна дисертация от университета Стеленбош (Южна Африка), която анализира присъствието на мотиви с павиани в изкуството на Новото царство (XVIII-XX династии, ок. 1550-1069 г. пр. н.е.)  на Древен Египет и тяхното символично значение в религиозните вярвания.
Макар да не са ендемично разпространен вид в долината на Нил, павианите се внасят в страната от дълбока древност. Особено интензивен е притокът на тези животни именно през този период, когато Египет е световна сила и изпраща редовни военни експедиции в Куш (Нубия, Судан) и Пунт (Сомалия). 
Сред всички останали екзотични животни павианите се радват на особен интерес и респект от страна на египтяните. Интелектът, природната любознателност, бързината и ловкостта, както и страховитите кучешки зъби са причина да се радват се на изключително уважение.
От друга страна един от инстинктивните им колективни навици - да посрещат изгряващото слънце издавайки хорово специфични щракащи звуци ги превръща вече в обект на религиозен култ. Египтяните смятат,че по този начин те почитат Ра (Ре) - бога на слънцето. Показната им сексуалност пък ги прави обичан образ за изразяване на креативните сили в природата.
Този богат набор от впечатления и асоциации намира израз в изкуството на погребалната живопис, където те присъстват често и се намират в центъра на сложна символика. 

Helena Pio - Baboons in Ancient Egyptian art : the significance of the baboon motif in the funerary art of the New Kingdom, Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch University, 2018

- на английски език, от Stellenbosch University, формат PDF.Свалянето става с десен бутон (downloading by right button) и Save as...

 

Added by: Admin | | Tags: древноегипетска зоология, Ново царство, древноегипетско изкуство, Древен Египет, древноегипетска религия
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The New Kingdom of Egypt represented a period of imperial successes when Egypt became a world power. The country enjoyed political stability under Dynasty XVIII – XX and actively participated in international affairs. They undertook trade expeditions to Kush and Punt to obtain resources and exotic ware, amongst which counted foreign animals, including baboons (Papio hamadryas), which by this time, were not indigenous anymore. Egyptians were known to live in harmony with nature, deeply aware of their dependence on cyclical regeneration as perceived in the daily return of the sun and the life-sustaining annual inundation of the Nile. These events ensured that earthly life could continue in a relatively harsh environment. Egyptians were naturally inclined to view opposites as complementary; just as their country was made up of the fertile Nile valley and the barren sand deserts, the terrestrial and celestial were parts of the same continuum. The natural world could provide clues to the supernatural; by closely observing the behaviour of animals, identifying characteristics similar to, and differing from those of humans, they developed a mythical construct to explain the nature of the cosmos. Baboons intrigued the Egyptians; they were uncannily similar to humans, yet also difficult to fathom; jubilant, pensive, fierce and with a noticeable sexuality, the behaviour of these animals offered a wide scope for portraying attributes of the divine as well as aspirations harboured by humans. They symbolised true veneration by chattering in a secret language while welcoming the sun at dawn, their contemplative staring showed an ancient wisdom and justness, they viciously protected their domain and their virility signified the creative force of life. These concepts were all important in the Egyptian quest for both earthly and eternal life; praising the deities could induce them to be just and wise in dealing with humanity and ensure protection and procreation. Egyptians lived in preparation for life hereafter and viewed the tomb as a very important station that had to be adequately equipped to sustain and protect the body and ‘soul’ of the deceased in the underworld. This was achieved by developing a complex symbolically laden decoration program for the burial chamber, the coffin, the canopic jars and other funerary goods. It is in this private sphere of the Egyptian tomb that the baboon motif persistently features to promote the well-being of the deceased by symbolising piety, justice, protection and regeneration.

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